On 18 May 1946, in Warsaw, Deputy Prosecutor Z. Rudziewicz interviewed the person specified below as a witness. Having been advised of the criminal liability for making false declarations, and of the provisions of Art. 106 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, the witness testified as follows:
|Name and surname||Bolesław Mirowski (Jerzy Landau)|
|Date of birth or age||31 January 1895|
|Names of parents||Adolf and Helena|
|Place of residence||Warsaw, Panieńska Street 3|
|Place of birth||Łódź|
|Relationship to the parties||none|
|Education||University of Warsaw|
My real name is Jerzy Landau and I am of Jewish origin. I was a doctor in Warsaw before the war. In 1925, I started working in the Department of Health of the Municipal Board.
After the Germans had entered on 7 November 1939, the Municipal Board received a circular letter signed by the German general administration authorities which specified that people of non-“Aryan” origin should be dismissed; as a consequence, I stopped working at the Municipal Board. The Germans did not issue any far-reaching orders regarding Jewish doctors; I have the impression that they did it in fear of an epidemic.
As far as I can remember, Jewish doctors were ordered to put up a Star of David on their office signs in order to show their origin.
The Ghetto was set up in October 1940. I became the director of the Anti-Epidemic section in the Ghetto. As a result of my work, I was informed about the size of the epidemic in the Ghetto. The Germans established a closed Jewish quarter under the pretence of combating a typhus epidemic; however, as a doctor, I declare that the establishment of a closed quarter actually itself caused the spread of typhus. This was for the following reasons:
1. The colossal population density inside an area which was too small: one room was occupied by at least three people, and usually by many more. In 1941 the Germans liquidated the local ghettos and concentrated the Jews in Warsaw. The newcomers either brought the germs from those places where an epidemic could still have been overcome, or easily became infected from Varsovians, as long as they had come from the towns where there was no epidemic. The Germans must have been aware of this state of affairs, but the German official doctor (Amtsarzt) Schrempf, and later, his deputy Hagen, did nothing about it. The liquidation of the local ghettos and the arrival of the Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto was ordered by the general administration authorities, who indirectly bear responsibility for the spread of epidemics in the Jewish quarter.
2. Poor, or rather starvation-level, provision of food. Jews received 2 kilograms of bread per month and sometimes a little fruit preserve in exchange for food ration coupons. People were dying of starvation; every day, one came across several corpses in the street. The provision of food in hospitals was completely unsatisfactory. In transit camps, people were dying of starvation and the only food available was the soup that was distributed in public kitchens. These places were like Dante’s Inferno. The Germans did not give any food rations for the newcomers.
The sanitary conditions in the Jewish quarter: our efforts [in] the Transferstelle to receive medicines and equipment for hospitals did not yield the desired effects. I cannot give detailed figures. Taken as a whole, the German orders implied that the establishment of the Ghetto was not a measure to combat the epidemic, but an intentional way to exterminate Jews. More detailed information concerning the conditions in the Ghetto can be provided by: Dr Łącki, Dr Perwon – a medical lecturer at the internal diseases clinic in Lódź, Dr Radwański in the Ministry of Health, Tenenbaum – the same place as Dr Radwański, Gołębiowski – the director of the Warsaw Reconstruction Bureau, Szeroka Street 5, now living in Łódź – Sienkiewicza Street 40, Dr Kowalski – the sanitary chief of Corps District Command [...] in Koszalin, Dr Pacho – the director of the hospital health department, at Bagatela Street 10.